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Thread: 什么是外汇储备

  1. #1
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    Smile 什么是外汇储备

    外汇储备是指一国货币当局所持有的、可以用于对外支付的国外可兑换货币。并非所有国家的货币都能充当国际储备资产,只有那些在国际货币体系中占有重要地位,且能自由兑换其他储备资产的货币才能充当国际储备资产。我国和世界其他国家在对外贸易与国际结算中经常使用的外汇储备主要有美元、欧元、日元、英镑等。
    一定的外汇储备是一国进行经济调节、实现内外平衡的重要手段。当国际收支出现逆差时,动用外汇储备可以促进国际收支的平衡;当国内宏观经济不平衡,出现总需求大于总供给时,可以动用外汇组织进口,从而调节总供给与总需求的关系,促进宏观经济的平衡。同时当汇率出现波动时,可以利用外汇储备干预汇率,使之趋于稳定。因此,外汇储备是实现经济均衡稳定的一个必不可少的手段,特别是在经济全球化不断发展,一国经济更易于受到其他国家经济影响的情况下,更是如此。
    一般说来,外汇储备的增加不仅可以增强宏观调控的能力,而且有利于维护国家和企业在国际上的信誉,有助于拓展国际贸易、吸引外国投资、降低国内企业融资成本、防范和化解国际金融风险。当然这并不是说外汇储备越多越好,因为持有外汇储备是要付出代价的。第一,外汇储备表现为持有一种以外币表示的金融债权,并非投入国内生产使用。这就产生了机会成本问题,就是如果货币当局不持有储备,就可以把这些储备资产用来进口商品和劳务,增加生产的实际资源,从而增加就业和国民收入,而持有储备则放弃了这种利益。因此,持有外汇储备,要考虑机会成本问题。第二,外汇储备的增加要相应扩大货币供应量,如果外汇储备过大,就会增加通货膨胀的压力,增加货币政策的难度。此外,持有过多外汇储备,还可能因外币汇率贬值而遭受损失。因此,外汇储备应保持在适度水平上。
    适度外汇储备水平取决于多种因素,如进出口状况、外债规模、实际利用外资等。应根据持有外汇储备的收益、成本比较和这些方面的状况把外汇储备保持在适度的水平上。

  2. #2
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    Default

    汇储备是指一国货币当局所持有的、可以用于对外支付的国外可兑换货币

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