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Thread: 外汇交易市场的参加者

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    Default 外汇交易市场的参加者

    ①中央银行
    中央银行对本国货币的发行、货币供给量的管理、外汇储备量的调整、本国货币价值的维持等负有重要责任,必要时还将在外汇市场上进行市场干预。譬如,美国、日本、德国、法国、加拿大及意大利等主要七国(G7)财长央行行长会议定时就主要货币的汇率进行协商,对外汇汇率的变动设定上限和下限,如果汇率变动到接近上限或下限的话,G7各国就会在外汇市场上共同采取干预措施。市场干预基本上采取逆市场而行的措施。没有相当特别的理由,一般中央银行不会采取市场干预措施。一般而言,中央银行控制强势货币比较容易,而维持弱势货币就相对困难。

    ②商业银行
    通常,银行是在外汇的供给者和需求者之间起到仲介桥梁的作用。银行外汇部门的主要业务是将开展贸易交易及资本交易的顾客的资产或负债由某一种货币交换成另外的货币。这种交换可以以现货交易(Spot)或预约交易(Forward)的方式处理。开展外汇业务的银行很多,不过,由于通讯技术的发达,信息能够在瞬间传达,因此,世界各地的金融中心,相同货币的价格必定趋向于一致。

    ③外汇经纪商
    外汇经纪商(Brokers)在外汇交易市场中起到中介人(Intermediaries)的作用。经纪商以获取手续费为目的,不承担外汇交易的损益风险。外汇经纪商因为熟悉外汇市场的供求状况、信息、技术分析及买卖程序,是投资者相当依赖的对象。

    ④进出口业者以及其他的外汇供求者
    贸易上,商品的出口或进口后的货款清算以及运输、保险、旅行、留学、国外的债券及股票的买卖、利息的支付等产生的外汇供给者和需求者。

    ⑤外汇的投机买卖者
    所谓外汇的投机买卖者,他们预测汇率的变动,通过现货、预约或期货交易,用少量的保证金进行大口的外汇交易。预测市场从现在起上升的话就先买进,上升之后再卖掉。反过来预测市场从现在起下跌的话先卖出,下跌后再买回。即便是很小的变动也可获得巨大的利益。

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    Default

    商品的出口或进口后的货款清算

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