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Thread: 外汇管制的利弊

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    Default 外汇管制的利弊

    外汇管制的利弊
      从外汇管制的利益或政策目标看,较短期的目标是:⑴限制进口商品的数量、种类和来源地,改善国际收支;⑵防止资金外逃;⑶稳定汇价,以提高社会公众对本国货币的信心。较长期的目标是:⑴把外汇资金控制并集中在政府手中,由政府决定对外贸易;⑵把本国经济同外国经济隔离开来,使本国经济免受外部经济的波动性影响;⑶保护民族工业,保护国内消费市场,尤其是要素市场,即谋求封闭经济条件下的内部均衡。
      外汇管制在达到政策目标的同时,也必须付出一定的代价,即外汇管制的弊端。表现在,从短期看:⑴进口商无法自由地选择市场、商品,因而难于从最具有比较优势的市场购买最廉价的商品;⑵由于进口受到外汇供给的严格限制,进口商品供给难以满足国内需求,引起进口商品在国内价格的上涨;⑶进口商获得垄断利润,包括商品溢价和外汇溢价。从长期看:⑴阻碍了外国资金的流入。由于实行外汇管制,外汇的使用受到严格限制,对外国投资者的吸引力大大减弱;⑵阻碍贸易发展。在外汇管制条件下,外汇汇率往往被高估,提高本国商品在国际市场的价格,降低其国际竞争力,而严格的外汇供给也阻碍了进口的发展;⑶无法获得对外贸易的动态利益。对外贸易是国际分工的结果,阻塞了对外贸易也就是阻塞了国际分工,无法享受由于国际分工发展带来的动态利益。

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    Default

    经济运行状况

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    Default

    外汇管制条件下,外汇汇率往往被高估

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